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As we will see, affect guides behaviour, helps us make decisions, and has a major impact on our mental and physical health. There are also observed sex differences on some particular types of tasks. Women tend to do better than men on some verbal tasks, including spelling, writing, and pronouncing words (Halpern et al., 2007), and they have better emotional intelligence in the sense that they are better at detecting and recognizing the emotions of others . On average, men do better than women on tasks requiring spatial ability, such as the mental rotation tasks shown in Figure 10.8 Spatial Rotation (Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995). Boys tend to do better than girls on both geography and geometry tasks . One problem with emotional intelligence tests is that they often do not show a great deal of reliability or construct validity (Føllesdal & Hagtvet, 2009). Although it has been found that people with higher emotional intelligence are also healthier (Martins, Ramalho, & Morin, 2010), findings are mixed about whether emotional intelligence predicts life success — for instance, job performance (Harms & Credé, 2010). Long-term potentiation occurs as a result of changes in the synapses, which suggests that chemicals, particularly neurotransmitters and hormones, must be involved in memory. Glutamate, a neurotransmitter and a form of the amino acid glutamic acid, is perhaps the most important neurotransmitter in memory (McEntee & Crook, 1993). When animals, including people, are under stress, more glutamate is secreted, and this glutamate can help them remember .
In the chapters to come we will consider the important roles that hormones play in many other behaviours, including sleeping, sexual activity, and helping and harming others. Recent research has also begun to document the role that female sex hormones may play in reactions to others. A study about hormonal influences on social-cognitive functioning (Macrae, Alnwick, Milne, & Schloerscheidt, 2002) found that women were more easily able to perceive and categorize male faces during the more fertile phases of their menstrual cycles. Although researchers did not directly measure the presence of hormones, it is likely that phase-specific hormonal differences influenced the women’s perceptions. Recent research has pinpointed some of the important roles of the sex hormones in social behaviour. Dabbs, Hargrove, and Heusel measured the testosterone levels of 240 men who were members of 12 fraternities at two universities. They also obtained descriptions of the fraternities from university officials, fraternity officers, yearbook and chapter house photographs, and researcher field notes. The researchers correlated the testosterone levels and the descriptions of each fraternity.
Psychology in Everyday Life: Regulating Emotions to Improve Our Health
This is a very quick and simple way to play bingo online. A ticket has just nine squares, so it works well on a mobile or a tablet. Outside cards are not allowed unless approved by the Bingo manager. Multiple winners split the prize money of the designated cash prize for the respective priced bingo card.
- This theory explains why dreams are usually forgotten immediately afterwards.
- Priming refers both to the activation of knowledge and to the influence of that activation on behaviour.
- But mostly he fears mice, checking under his bed frequently to see if any are present.
- Related persons of the person or partnership must also satisfy the conditions in subparagraphs 1 to 3 of the first paragraph.
The average Canadian adult reported getting only 6.5 hours of sleep per night, which is less than the recommended range proposes. Normally we will go through several cycles of REM and non-REM sleep each night (Figure 6.5, “EEG Recordings of Brain Patterns During Sleep”). The length of the REM portion of the cycle tends to increase through the night, from about five to 10 minutes early in the night to 15 to 20 minutes shortly before awakening in the morning. Dreams also tend to become more elaborate and vivid as the night goes on.
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However, although modelling can increase violence, it can also have positive effects. Research has found that, just as children learn to be aggressive through observational learning, they can also learn to be altruistic in the same way (Seymour, Yoshida, & Dolan, 2009). Figure 8.8 Researchers found that undergraduate students who had just played a violent video game expressed significantly more violent responses to a story than did those who had just played a nonviolent video game. In one experiment, Bushman and Anderson assessed the effects of viewing violent video games on aggressive thoughts and behaviour. Participants were randomly assigned to play either a violent or a nonviolent video game for 20 minutes. Each participant played one of four violent video games or one of four nonviolent video games . If you guessed that most of the children imitated the model, you would be correct.